However, using one's hands to shove, grip, or otherwise obstruct an attacking player might result in a foul. The amount of casual touch permitted varies according to level and referee. When a defensive player collides with an offensive player while pursuing a lost ball, the referee may declare the contact to be unintended and incidental. If this occurs, no penalty is called.
If a defensive player uses his/her hand to stop an attack on the goal line, this is known as a "handball" violation and results in a free kick for the opposing team. A similar action by an offensive player results in a call for a "holding" offense at the other end of the court. This is a very common error at all levels of play.
It is important to note that when a player is "held" he/she cannot use their arms or body to prevent an opponent from getting into position to shoot or pass. However, if a player wraps their arm around another person's waist or neck for any reason other than support they have committed a personal foul.
A handball violation also requires a free kick for the opposing team. However, if a player commits this violation by accident when trying to stop an attack on the goal line, the referee may decide not to call a free kick. This depends on how quickly the player who was held reacts to the situation.
Defenders may be called for a personal foul if they make illegal physical contact while attempting to prevent an opponent from scoring. Using an unlawful screen to impede the route of a defender is a personal foul for offensive players. A penalty is imposed when a player is fouled while attempting to shoot. The referee will call "personal" if he believes that a defensive player was illegally obstructing an offensive player's shot attempt.
Here are some examples of personal fouls:
Personal - called because a defender grabbed an arm or leg of an opposing player trying to block a shot
Flagrant 1 - called for any violent act against an opponent, such as hitting him with an elbow or kicking him
Flagrant 2 - called for any dangerous act against an opponent, such as hitting him with a closed fist or throwing a punch
Summary: Defenders must stay out of the way when their opponents are shooting free throws. If they don't, they could be called for a personal foul.
If a defensive player makes normal touch with a player's hand while it is in contact with the ball, it is not a foul. Hitting an offensive player's hand while it is in touch with the ball is permissible in the NBA. However, if the defensive player uses excessive force to hit the ball, this would be a flagrant 1 foul and result in a penalty shot for the opposing team.
It is a blocking foul on the defender if he does not get into a lawful guarding posture before contact happens. It is an offensive foul if he gets to a lawful defending stance before contact happens. There are, of course, exceptions, such as when an offensive player leads with his or her foot or knee. In that case, there is no legal guarding postion the defender can be in before making contact.
In addition, there is the illegal defense, which is any defensive action that violates the rules of basketball. Examples include holding players above the shoulders, poking at balls outside the free-throw line, and batting at balls inside the free-throw line. All illegal defenses are considered fouls.
Finally, there is the out-of-bounds defense, which is used by a team with possession in order to prevent the opposing team from getting a shot. This defense includes anything that causes a ball handler to lose control of the ball or force him or her to go out of bounds, such as grabbing his or her jersey or clothing. Out-of-bounds defenses do not result in personal fouls because there is no intent to injure involved.
An offensive player is called for a blocking foul if he leads with his leg (except the foot) or attempts to lead with his leg and fails. The fact that he succeeded in drawing the charge does not remove the foul.
If a defender swipes or clutches a passer in the knee region or below in an effort to tackle him, it is not a foul as long as he does not make forced contact with the head, shoulder, chest, or forearm. If he makes such contact, then it is a personal foul.
The only exception would be if the defender has enough force behind his hit to cause injury, in which case it would be a flagrant foul and result in a penalty shot for the opposing player. However, this is very rare today with officials using video review to determine if a play was dirty or not. This rule was created to protect quarterbacks from getting injured on bad tackles but also allows defenders to get off of them if they feel like it could harm their receiver.
Here are some other common misconceptions about this rule:
This rule does not apply to runners who are trying to avoid contact with defensive players. Only passers can be roughed up by illegal contact.
Roughing the passer is not a call that can be made by either coach during timeouts or dead periods of the game.
This rule cannot be called if there is no potential impact on the quarterback. For example, if a defender jumps out of the way at the last moment, then it is not a foul.
A foul committed by a player or coach, usually without physical contact with an opponent, is called for unsportsmanlike conduct, such as holding on to the basket or using profanity, and results in one or two free throws for the opposing team, as well as the ejection of the offending player or coach...
The only time a referee can issue a technical foul is if he/she sees an illegal move being made during a play. For example, if a player charges into the stands to attack someone, this would be a disqualifying offense that would result in both players being ejected from the game.
Players are allowed to call their own fouls if they want to stop the clock or prevent a fast-break opportunity for their opponents. A player will often call a foul when he feels his team is getting outrebounded or if he thinks his man is getting away with a hard foul. In either case, the player is able to signal for a foul by raising his hand above his head. If a player does not call a foul, then the opposition can complain to the referees after the fact. However, it is important to remember that once the ball has been tossed up into the air, it is no longer legal for a player to touch it...
In addition to calling actual fouls, players can also send opponents to the bench by making aggressive moves toward the hoop, grabbing at balls, etc..