The rules varied from region to region, from Derbyshire to Dorset to Scotland, and archives indicate several regional variants on the game. The games were frequently played on an ill-defined pitch, with the ball kicked, carried, and pushed across town and village streets, through fields, hedges, and streams. The only real rule was that the ball had to be made of leather or rubber.
The earliest written evidence of rugby comes from England, where it is mentioned in a 1772 newspaper article about a match between Cambridge University and London University. The writer notes that "a few years ago, a new sport was introduced at Cambridge called 'Rugby,' which is played with the ball." This account has been taken as proof that rugby originated at Cambridge University; however, there are other theories regarding the origin of the sport. It may have been introduced by students from Rugby School, who became known for their skill at this new game.
Rugby as we know it today was first developed in England during the early 19th century. The original form of the game consisted of a series of clashes between local teams, with each side given 15 players, a pig's bladder for a ball, and sticks or cudgels for weapons. In 1829, William Webb Ellis is said to have created modern rugby when he decided to add a bit of fun to its play.
England The football contest takes shape. The most widely accepted legend has it that the game was invented in England in the 12th century. Football-like sports were played in English fields and roadways throughout the twentieth century. However, modern football as we know it today is thought to have been developed by Sir Henry Walton (1879 -1957) and his colleagues at the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in London. They introduced several changes to make football more exciting to watch, including having players with the ball. Before this time, everyone who could kick a stone or ball could take part in the games so there was not much difference between men, women, and children. Sir Henry wanted to promote sport for all people, especially for those who lived far from town centers, so he created a code of conduct for football that still used today.
Australia It is believed that football was first played in Australia during British occupation of the country. The game would have been similar to soccer with some differences due to culture and environment. For example, the Australians played on a field that was smaller than what is seen today, and they used their hands instead of feet to interact with the ball.
North America On May 24, 1876, Harvard University played its first official match against Cambridge College.
Britain The initial years Football as we know it now began in the nineteenth century in the United Kingdom. "Folk football" games have been played in cities and villages since before the Middle Ages, according to local customs and with few regulations. It is believed that rules were developed to provide order to a game that was becoming popular among the working classes.
France According to some sources, French children were being taught how to play football in public schools by 1879. However, the first official international match was not played between France and England, but rather between France and America. The game took place on February 1, 1879, in the Georgetown Stadium in Washington, D.C. USA defeated France 3-1.
Germany An English teacher named George Barclay Walker is credited with introducing soccer to Germany. In 1867, he traveled throughout Bavaria teaching people how to play the game. In 1872, when German students went back home after attending school in England, they brought with them not only new skills but also soccer. In 1873, the first official international match was played between Germany and Austria. Germany won 1-0 thanks to an own goal by Austria's goalkeeper.
Italy The first known reference to football being played in Italy comes from 1472. However, it wasn't until much later that the game spread across the country.
Britain Football as we know it now began in the nineteenth century in the United Kingdom. Though "folk football" had been played with varied rules since medieval times, the game began to be codified when it was adopted as a winter sport at public schools. The early versions were similar to what we call rugby today; however, they were usually played on a grass field using a ball that could not be kicked (because there were no shoes at the time). As schools began to play football during winter months, they needed some way to keep themselves amused while not playing sports. So, the first known examples of soccer being used to describe the sport date back to 1856 and refer to games played by students at University College School and Harrow School.
Though folk football had existed for many years before this, it was the adoption of schoolboy football that led to its evolution into the sport we know today. In 1867, William Alexander Smith published The Game of Football: Its Laws and Regulations, which included descriptions of how to play the game and guidelines for different types of players. This book is considered the first official guide to football and is still available today. In addition to codifying the sport, Smith also invented the term "association football" after the organization he played for named itself The Football Association. His work was followed by others, such as Henry Longhurst's Guide to Football (1922), which included information on over 100 different teams from around the world.
Soccer (or football in England) was split from rugby after its arrival in educational institutions, and regulations were established. The separation resulted from soccer laws that prohibited players from gripping the ball with their hands, pushing, shoving, and confining the ball to their feet, chest, and head. These rules were created because students used the sport as a form of physical exercise and athletes enjoyed great popularity; therefore, any activity that would get them off the field too long would reduce attendance at games.
Another reason given for the separation is that soccer's governing body at the time, the Football Association, did not want to be associated with sports such as shoving and punching, which were commonly used in rugby games at the time. Finally, it was believed that there were sufficient differences between the two sports that they should be kept separate.
In conclusion, the reasons for separating soccer from rugby are based on traditions set by the former association that didn't want to be associated with activities such as shoving and punching.
The game begins with a place kick or a drop kick from the halfway line. The ball must move at least 10 yards ahead from the kick-off. If a penalty or drop goal is scored during the game, the game is resumed with a drop kick from halfway. The kick is taken by the side that has given up the points. There are several different types of place kicks in rugby, but they all have one thing in common: they are all very hard to return.
After the drop kick there is a short break before the first scrum of the game. The five players from each team who form the scrum go back into their own half of the field. They stop just past the try line and push each other backwards until only two players remain. It's their job to stand over the ball and protect it while the rest of their team loads the scrum. The player at number 8 on the opposing team takes charge of the scrum.
Once the scrum has been formed, the referee calls "scrum" and both sides rush forward to get a good grip on the opposition player's shoulders pads. It's here that damage is done to legs and knees as players jostle for position. Once one side manages to pull themselves forward, they drag the opposing player with them. If the player being dragged goes down, then he is off-side and cannot take part in the play. The player who has been pulled across the try line is awarded a free kick.