Ingredients A pig's bladder was inflated and used as the ball in the early phases of football. In comparison, today's football consists of an inflated rubber bladder encased in a pebble-grained leather or cowhide shell. The interior of the ball is packed with wool and silk fibers to provide extra softness and flexibility.
The first reference to a "ball" in print appears in a 17th-century Latin book by Johan Gronovius called De Ludicibus Elveticis ("On the Games of the Swiss"). It describes a game played with a ball made from the skin of an animal, in this case, a deer. This suggests that football as we know it today did not exist back then, since skins were used instead.
However, there are references to a spherical object being used in a ball game played by members of the French aristocracy around 1815. This game was probably rugby, which would explain why there is no record of any injuries happening during play. Also, it should be noted that these aristocrats were living in France, where games such as rugby do not exist today. They may have been inspired by games played in England or Germany at the time. These games would have looked similar to modern soccer with a ball made from a pigskin casing.
Footballs were leather-covered bladders in the early nineteenth century. There were attempts using natural rubber balls, but they bounced too high to be utilized in football games. The first American football ball was made from cowhide and was used by Princeton University in 1873.
The ball was about the size of a modern soccer ball and had no seams. It was covered with leather except for a piece of cloth wrapped around it. That's why it looked different from today's footballs.
There are reports that George Washington Carver played college football in 1875. However, this is not confirmed by any sources I have found. He did play on a team called the "Necks" at Shaw University where he met his death in 1890 during a game against Delta College.
I wasn't able to find any records indicating that he was injured on the field. So we can assume that he died because of a serious illness instead. His teammates didn't report him missing after the game so it can be assumed that he must have left the field under his own power. According to some sources, George Washington Carver was a pitcher and catcher on the Necky's team. Other than that, there are no records showing that he played football before or after his death.
Sometimes the bladder was packed with straw or pieces of other material, however filling rather than inflating resulted in an odd form that didn't work as well in some activities. Later, the animal bladders were occasionally enclosed in leather of some kind, though pig skin was not widely utilized. Modern balls are usually made from polyurethane or latex.
In 1845, a New York sports newspaper reported that a new ball was being tested by Harvard and Yale football teams. The newspapers said that the new ball was made from the stomachs of young pigs stuffed with cotton and sealed up to make them air-tight. These new balls were apparently approved for use in the college games because they did not get too soft even after being kicked around for a while. They may have been too hard, however, for modern sports such as baseball which require more muscle control when catching and throwing the ball.
The first reference to plastic balls used in American football comes from an article in the Boston Daily Globe on November 2, 1875. The story reports that students at Cambridge University had given a game called "American Football" there a go. The players appeared to be using rubber balls that had been inflated with air compresses.
In 1898, an Englishman named William Gilbert designed a ball that would eventually become the standard in America as well.
Leather is utilized in modern footballs used in collegiate and professional sports. Footballs still feature an interior bladder, although it is composed of polyurethane or rubber nowadays. The ball is wrapped in leather to provide strength and durability.
Footballs have evolved over time with technology advancing. Modern balls are generally composed of five layers: a core, two coats of paint, three types of stitching (one on each side and one inside), and the ball's logo.
Cores are typically made from butyl rubber or styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). Butyl rubber is a synthetic compound that is completely odorless and latex-like when exposed to air. It is also lightweight and highly elastic. SBR is manufactured by chemically combining styrene and butadiene molecules. The result is a material that is similar to natural rubber, except that it does not contain any carbon-carbon double bonds or aromatic compounds. This makes it more durable and longer lasting than natural rubber balls.
Coats of paint are used to give the ball its appearance and protect it from damage. There are two main types of paint used in footballs today: synthetic and pigmented.
Synthetic paints are non-organic and do not come from natural sources.
Football is a sport that dates back to the late 1800s, when it was a loose blend of rugby and soccer. The ball was constructed from an inflated pig's bladder at the time. The bladders were semi-round in shape, but because they were difficult to inflate, no two footballs looked alike. The size of a football varied depending on which part of the world it came from; some were large enough to hold a man's head, while others were small enough to be thrown (or kicked) like a stone.
The first written rules for football were published in 1872 by Henry William Chesterman of England. These early rules are based on the English game of rugby, which at that time had become very popular in England. The main difference between rugby and football is that in rugby the player with the ball can run with it, whereas in football he has to kick it or pass it.
Chesterman's rules were not accepted immediately by all parties involved in the game, so a few years later another set of rules were produced by James Lillywhite, who is considered by many to be the father of modern football. These rules are more familiar to most people today as they are the ones used by the Football Association (now known as FIFA). There have been several other changes to the rules over time, but these two sets cover almost everything important for modern football.
In addition to these official rules, there are of course many variations of football played worldwide.