While officiating the two opposing teams, the first referee calls the game from an elevated referee stand. The first official is usually one of the tournament directors or their assistants.
The first ref starts the game by blowing his whistle. He may also say "out" when he wants a player off the court who is not injured. A voice signal can be used instead.
During a rally, if the ball goes out of bounds, then the first referee signals for that side to take a free point. If there is no rebound, then the first referee will call "out".
If a team violates any rules while serving, then the first referee points to the spot on the floor where the violation occurred. Then he calls "serve", followed by the number of the offending team member. For example, if a player taps the ball with his hand or takes a step toward it while returning it, then he has broken a rule and should serve a penalty shot.
In this case, the first referee would say "one" and point to the left corner. The server must serve the ball into that corner before he can continue playing.
Each game has two official referees and two line judges. The referee on the stand is the chief referee (also known as the first or "up" referee). The second or down referee is the referee who stands opposite him/her. The line judges are located near each end line of the court. They make judgments on balls that have not been scored as errors or violations.
The term "judge" is used for both men and women, although traditionally only men were judges. Today, however, women are becoming more involved with the sport; therefore, the use of this term should not be a reason for excluding female candidates from consideration.
There are nine players on a team at any one time, so there needs to be at least three judges at all times during a match. This is to ensure that games do not go beyond their scheduled ending time.
A match consists of five sets of games, which can be played in any order. At the end of each set, the team that wins most of these games goes into the next round, while the loser moves out. If teams are still equal in points after the fifth set, a tie-breaker game will determine which team advances.
In terms of physical activity, setting lines marks a change in level of effort between players and spectators.
The official who sits on the referee stand (a raised platform) on the side of the court opposite the team benches is the first referee. The game begins with the first referee whistling and signaling (beckoning) the server to serve the ball. The official in charge is the first referee. He or she is responsible for ensuring that the game is played according to law and for calling violations, penalties, and time-outs.
There are three types of referees: linesmen, umpires, and supervisors. Each type has several officials at different levels of responsibility. For example, an assistant referee would be charged with helping the first referee by communicating instructions and making rulings on borderline cases. A fourth official would be added to the crew if the game involves many changes of ends.
In men's professional tennis, the first line judge is assigned to a match. The second line judge is assigned after the first day of play. This continues until about half the matches have been completed. At this point, the supervisor takes over for the remaining matches of the tournament. In women's professional tennis, the first line judge is always assigned during the week-long tournament. The other two line judges are assigned after the first day of play. At this point, the supervisor takes over for the remainder of the tournament.
In American football, the first official is usually a line judge.
The "up" referee is so named because he or she climbs up and calls the game from an elevated volleyball stand. The first official watches while an injured player is cared for. If necessary, they can call for additional help from other officials or coaches.
Volleyball has a number of names in different languages: German language volleyball is known as basketbol, Spanish language volleyball is called pelota, French language volleyball is called volley-ball, and Italian language volleyball is called pallone.
The up ref gets to see more of the action than any other official, which is why they are important for good officiating. They can also make big decisions about the game that may not be obvious from just watching it on television.
In addition to calling penalties and fouls, up referees can rule on ball possession, define game rules (such as how far players can jump), and even award points. These points can then be added to the total score at the end of the match.
Up referees are usually men or women who have been selected by their national team for its games. They are usually experienced volleyball players themselves, since it's their job to know what is going on during a match and to make sure that it is played according to protocol.
Line judges provide assistance to the referees. In most cases and at most levels of competition, two line judges are positioned diagonally opposite each other on opposing corners. Their primary task is to determine whether the ball is in-bounds or out-of-bounds when it strikes the floor. Line judges can also signal errors by raising their hands.
The referee is responsible for maintaining order during play and contacting players regarding violations of rules. He or she is also responsible for making sure that time is called properly and sending players back into their positions before each point begins. Finally, the ref signals fouls and ejections from the court.
There are three categories of referees: junior referees, senior referees, and master referees. Junior referees are 12 years old or younger and cannot be promoted to any other category. They work primarily men's college basketball games and select women's basketball and soccer matches. The number of men's basketball games they work per year is about 250. Senior referees are between 13 and 30 years old and can become either men's or women's referees. They work about 5500 men's basketball games and 3500 women's games annually. Master referees are over 30 years old and have direct access to the highest office in basketball: the office of the NBA Commissioner. They work approximately 1500 regular season games per year, mainly men's but also some women's.