A baseball must also keep its spherical shape after being struck 200 times by a force of 65 pounds (29.51 kg). A baseball must twist less than 0.08 inch (.20 cm) after being squashed between two anvils to demonstrate its strength.
The solid ball itself is made of leather, which is strong but can be damaged. The core of the ball is made of cork, which is light and durable. Leather strips are attached to either end of the core to help hold it together. A rubber band is often used instead. Around 5,000 balls are used in the course of a major league game.
Baseball has been played since 1845. It is believed that the first game was played in New York City between Columbia College and Princeton. The rules of baseball have changed very little since those early days. Baseball has become more popular over time as prices have dropped and more quality equipment has become available.
In 1919, there were only three balls used in each game. This was increased to four balls per game in 1953. In 1998, the number of balls used in a game was reduced to three per player. This reduction was done in an effort to make the game faster paced and more exciting for fans.
During World War II, baseball remained America's pastime while many men served in the military.
As you have learned, it contains a rubber-coated cork core that is tightly coiled with thread and covered with alum leather. Official baseballs must have a circumference of nine to nine and one-quarter inches and a weight of five to five and one-quarter ounces. The ball itself is square, which means that there are no seams where two different materials meet; instead, the ball is woven from natural fibers including cotton and linen. It takes about 150 balls combined to make up a single bat.
The baseball was invented in 1857 by Abner Doubleday, a New York City merchant who played around his backyard with a ball made of pigskins. Although this early version of the ball was not made specifically for use in play, it did not cause any injuries at the time because it was so poorly constructed. The first modern ball, which was introduced in 1893, was made out of rubber and had puffed stitches where it was attached to the stringing.
Today's baseball has many improvements and changes from the original game ball. For example, the ball can no longer be made from pigskin because this material is too hard and does not stretch enough when it gets old and stiff. Instead, the ball now consists of plastic or synthetic materials such as polyurethane and latex. This new type of ball is more durable than the old one but still feels soft when kicked around the field.
The maximum allowable surface area for a baseball is 27.24 square inches, and the maximum volume is 13.37 cubic inches. Baseballs also have a set weight range. The minimum weight for a baseball is 5 ounces. On the high end, a baseball can weigh as much as 5.25 ounces. The maximum size for a baseball to be used in official games is 12 inches in diameter.
The surface area of a baseball equals 4πr². Here, π stands for pi, which is approximately 3.14. So the total surface area of a baseball is 36π inches or 9.43 square inches.
The volume of a sphere is 3/5 radius³. The maximum radius of a baseball is 10 inches. So the maximum volume of a baseball is 30 cubic inches, which is nearly 1/4 pint.
The surface area of a baseball increases how it is worn. As balls are used in games they become more rounded, which increases the surface area and thus the likelihood of a strike. A well-made ball will not feel overly soft when thrown hard.
The actual surface area of a baseball varies by type. Standard balls have between 35 and 40 square inches, while regulation balls have up to 44 square inches. Special balls such as "splash" or "swim" balls have larger surfaces, which allows them to be hit with greater force without causing too much damage when they land.
A regulation baseball has a circumference of 9 to 9 1/4 inches (229-235 mm) and a diameter of 2 55/64-2 15/16 inches (73-75 mm). It weighs 5 to 5 1/4 oz (142 to 149 g). 108 hand-woven threads in cowhide leather hold a baseball together.
A big league baseball now weighs between 5 and 5 + 14 ounces (142 and 149 g) and measures 9 to 9 + 14 inches (229-235 mm) in circumference (2 + 78 -3 in or 73-76 mm in diameter). A baseball has 108 double stitches, or 216 individual stitches.