In basketball, foul trouble occurs when a player is on the verge of fouling out owing to amassing too many personal fouls in a game. A player who fouls out is unable to return to the game. Foulting out of a game is not an automatic suspension for players; rather, the NBA's collective bargaining agreement with its players allows for suspensions to be reduced by one third for players who miss several games due to foul trouble.
The amount of time it takes a player to foul out varies significantly from player to player, but on average it is about three minutes. This is because most players have only so many fouls they can commit in an hour-long game; if they use up all their fouls before the end of the first half or quarter, they will need to be replaced. However, some players have a greater number of fouls than others; if one player has 9 fouls while another has 7, it would take longer for the former to be removed from the game.
Players are given two free throws after they foul out. After that, they must wait for the remainder of the game to finish to be able to return. If they do not return within the allotted time, then they will be said to have "fouled out".
There are two main types of fouls in basketball: personal and technical.
In basketball, a foul is a more serious rule violation than a violation. The majority of fouls are caused by illegal physical contact with an opponent and/or unsportsmanlike behavior. One or more free throws are granted to the fouled player. The player who commits the foul is "fouled out" of the game. A foul does not result in a penalty shot unless it is attempted and missed.
There are five common fouls in basketball: charging, elbowing, grabbing, hooking, and tripping. These violations occur when a player uses excessive force against his or her opponent. Charging is defined as when a player approaches the basket at a fast speed with no legal screen set up by a teammate. Elbowing occurs when a player uses one arm to throw a punch with the elbow bent. This is a quick move used to distract an opponent. Grabbing involves any form of physical contact that holds back a player from getting into the act. Hooking occurs when a player reaches behind their back with their hand or arms and trips up their opponent. Tripping is similar to hooking except that it involves the feet rather than the hands or arms.
A sixth foul can be called if a player is determined to be out of control during play. This includes but is not limited to hitting or kicking a referee, coach, or anyone else in a violent manner. Such actions will result in a suspension without pay.
When a player commits a foul, another personal foul is added to their name. If they hit a particular number throughout the game, they will be "fouled out" and will no longer be able to participate. In college and high school, it takes five fouls to foul out; in the NBA, it requires six fouls.
The most common reason for getting fouled out is shooting too much. If a player is taking more than 33% of their shots from beyond the arc, they are likely to be fouled out before the end of the first quarter. They would then have to wait until the end of the game to see if they are cleared by the referees to continue playing.
A second reason for getting fouled out is excessive attention from the refs. If a player believes that they are being called for too many fouls, they should speak with the ref before the start of the next period. However, if they are being ignored altogether, they can ask for a technical on themselves. Technicals are free throws taken after a flagrant foul or direct confrontation with a referee.
A third reason for getting fouled out is losing your temper. You should never lose your cool during a game, but if you find yourself yelling at the refs or throwing objects onto the court, you will be given your sixth foul and removed from the game.
The victim of a contact foul used to be awarded three free throw attempts, and the offender kept control of the ball. A player who is fouled while shooting now receives one to three shots, and the other team usually takes possession afterwards (see Penalties below). However, if the fouled player makes all three attempts, then they earn six free throws for their next shot.
In addition, if the player who was fouled goes to the line and misses two free throws, then they get another chance after another defender comes within five feet of the basket. This process continues until either the player makes all their attempts or passes out by missing too many. If the fouled player holds on to the ball beyond the allotted time, then it is considered a foul called against the opposition with no free throws given.
There are two types of contact fouls: Flagrant 1 and Flagrant 2. A flagrant 1 calls for the immediate ejection of the player who committed the foul; a flagrant 2 requires the player to leave the game. Neither type of foul results in any further action from the referees; they simply signal the end of the player's opportunity to shoot free throws.
A contact foul can also be referred to as a "charge" when the offending player drives hard into his opponent at least once before making contact with the court.