An out happens in baseball when the umpire rules a hitter or baserunner out. When a hitter or runner is out, he or she returns to the dugout until their next at-bat. The batting team's turn ends when three outs are recorded in a half inning. A batter can be ruled out on any type of strike (ball, fast ball, sliders), but only two runners can be on base at a time.
A runner is out when he fails to advance beyond first base before the end of the inning; if the play was made by a fielder for a force out, then that runner is not out. If a runner breaks an attempt at first base without reaching first safely, he is considered out. This includes cases where a sliding catcher blocks the path of the runner who tries to go all the way to second base but is called out because the blocker got to him first.
In addition, if a batter strikes out looking or hit by pitch, that batter is out regardless of whether the batter advances past first base. If a player is put out while attempting to reach first base, they remain out until they return to the dugout. In this case, the out would not affect the number of men on base since there were only two players involved. However, if the player who reached first base later scores during their next at-bat, then that player has advanced beyond first base and should not have been thrown out.
In the umpire's opinion, the batter is out when, as the ball is being fielded to first base, the batter rushes outside (to the right of) the three foot line or inside (to the left of) the foul line, and in the umpire's opinion, this interferes with the fielder taking...
The batter is out even if the ball hits the ground before he reaches first base. For example: a pitcher throws a ball, and before it can be caught, another player runs from third base toward home plate and knocks it into the dirt with his foot. The batter is out because he didn't receive the ball cleanly. Even though there was no ball in play when the runner reached home plate, the batter is still out.
If a runner is not out of the baselines when he reaches first base, then he has gone too far and can be called for interference. Interference occurs any time a player commits himself to an act that prevents a fielder from making a complete and normal attempt to catch a ball. If a runner touches all parts of the base except for the hands or hips, he is considered out of the baselines. For example, if a runner slides head-first in an effort to stop himself from going too far, he is out of the baselines.
A baserunner is out even if he reaches first base by error.
Either batsman is out or run out, except in 38.2, if he/she is out of his/her ground at any moment while the ball is in play and his/her wicket is fairly placed down by the action of a fielder even if no ball has been called, except in 38.2. In that case, the striker is out only if he fails to retire within 10 minutes of the end of the over.
The striker can be run out either when he is still running after the ball is hit to him, or when he has stopped running but the fielder on the opposite side keeps him waiting before throwing down the stumps. If this happens, the umpire will call "run out".
In cricket, a run out occurs when a player is not given out bowled nor caught behind but rather he is deemed to have escaped by someone else on the field. A player is considered to have escaped if he remains beyond his ground with the ball in hand or has not been taken off the field after being dismissed. If a player has escaped then he cannot be retried for the same incident. However, if he commits a crime while escaping then this would result in his expulsion from the game.
The term "run out" may also be applied to other situations where a player has escaped detection by officials on the field.