Most championship contests require six jumps per contestant, yet a number of them, particularly those with lower marks, are sometimes removed after three leaps. If two athletes have the same distance, the athlete with the next best distance is proclaimed the winner. Many judges cannot distinguish between certain distances so they will not award any points for these jumps.
The most common numbers of jumps in competition are:
3 hops - sprinting events
4 hops - middle-distance events
5 hops - long-distance events
6 hops - field events
7 hops - combined events
8 hops - precision events
9 hops - power events
10 hops - endurance events
11 hops - multi-discipline events
12 hops - events without penalties for failure.
In addition to the standard numbers of jumps, some events may be held to a higher standard or lowered to a lower one. For example, the high jump is usually required to be at least 1.85 m (6'0") but it can be as low as 1.75 m (5'9").
Competitors may start jumping at any height declared by the chief judge, or they may pass at their discretion. Most competitions stipulate that three consecutive missed jumps, at any height or combination of heights, will disqualify the jumper. This is called a "missed attempt."
The miss rate is the number of attempts required to reach success. For example, if the miss rate for the men's high jump is 15 percent and there are 10 men in the field, then each man needs to make about six attempts before he succeeds. The miss rate is also known as the failure rate.
There are two ways to improve one's miss rate: practice and biology. With practice, even elite athletes can reduce their miss rates significantly. Biologically, however, the maximum possible miss rate is 25%. Some athletes, particularly those who have difficulty getting off the floor with their first try, will appear to fail more often than others who jump with more success on their first attempt. These "failures" are actually successes because they represent an effort that got the heart pumping and made sufficient contact with the bar to lift some weight. In fact, most athletes will succeed on their first attempt only 50% of the time from random error alone. So for every four jumps people think it takes to qualify, two will be false failures caused by random error and only two will be true failures due to lack of ability.
But all you need to know is that there are only six recognized jumps in competitive figure skating since there are only a specific amount of edges and ways a skater may land a jump: the toe loop, the salchow, the loop, the flip, the lutz, and the axel.
However, some people try different types of moves together as one program or sequence of moves called a lift. There are several variations on this lift including the twist, the cobble stone, and the Yuna jump.
In addition to these basic lifts, athletes have been known to do complicated combinations of two or more jumps into one move called a combo. For example, a double-axel involves jumping first with the left foot then the right foot at the same time. A triple-loop includes three consecutive jumps. There are even four-step throws!
The most common number of jumps in a program is either a single jump or a couple of doubles or triples. If an athlete goes beyond this, it is called a lift.
In general, more difficult jumps require more air time which means they take up more of the song or dance segment of the program. This makes them harder to perform and therefore values those who can execute them highly among their peers.
1. Each participant is allowed two tries at each of the first jump heights. When the field is reduced to six, each competitor is permitted three tries at each height. This continues until someone breaks the record.
The high jump uses the vertical distance from foot to top of bar as its measure for success. The more you can get your body up into a vertical position, the higher you will be able to clear a fence or break a record. In terms of human anatomy, the high jump involves both legs and hips, as well as the upper body, particularly the arms and chest. A successful jump requires strength in all these areas.
There are different ways to improve one's high jump ability. Practice makes perfect, so repetition is key. You can also practice with weights if you lack muscle mass in your legs. Last, but not least, observe high jumpers during competitions to find out what techniques they use to achieve their results. Sometimes it helps to copy them!
The official record for men stands at 2.43 meters (7 ft 9 in) by American Bob Stull on this date in 1947. The women's record is 1.77 meters (5 ft 11 in) set by France's Nicole Lebrun in 2003.