The Protestant clubs are Hearts and Rangers, whereas the Catholic clubs are Hibs and Celtic. However, both Hearts and Hibs are located in Edinburgh while Rangers and Celtic are in Glasgow.
Hearts was founded in 1874 by members of a local church who wanted to create a team that would compete with the other sports clubs of Edinburgh. The original name of the club was St. Andrew's Golf Club, but this was changed when they entered the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1875. They have never left the competition, and have made the final four times, most recently in 2014-15.
Hearts has been a member of the Scottish Football League since 1890, when they were admitted as one of the new teams created by the league. The club went out of business at the end of the 1994-95 season, but was re-formed two years later. Today, they play in the SPFL Championship - the highest level of football in Scotland. This division combines the old First Division with the new Second Division to form a single top flight.
Hearts has won the Scottish Cup twice - in 1908 and 2009 - and the Scottish League One title in 2013.
You've probably heard it all before: Hibs are a "Celtic team," Hearts are a "Rangers team," Hibs are "Irish" and "Catholic," and Hearts are "British" and "Protestant." United are a mini-Celtic, being "Irish" and "Catholic," whereas Dundee are a mini-Rangers, being "British" and "Protestant."
Actually, none of this is true. Both clubs are owned by Scottish businessmen who are not religious organizations nor do they have any relation to the Catholic Church.
Hearts were originally called A.D. Fife after their main sponsor, Adelphi Theatre Fife. The name was changed when they moved to Tynecastle in 1969 and the new owners wanted to make sure that everyone knew they were a new club so they could be identified easily by their new fans.
Hearts had some success early on with players like John Hartson, Peter Houston, Chris Humphrey, and David Jamieson but then went through a phase where they couldn't even qualify for the playoffs let alone win anything.
They haven't won anything since 1989-1990 season when they finished first in the old Division One but were denied entry into the new Premier League because they didn't have a stadium meeting the criteria set by the league. They still play at Tynecastle today.
The religious divide between Catholicism and Protestantism lies at the heart of the two Glasgow football clubs. Rangers supporters are traditionally Protestant, whilst Celtic supporters are Catholic.
Celtic were founded in 1887 by a group of Catholic men who wanted to play football after prayers with their priest. The club's name comes from céilidh, the Irish language word for party. In those days it was common for churches to sponsor sports teams - in this case, a football team - which would play against other sponsors' sides. Although they initially had no luck on the field, Celtic soon became popular with their fan base due to their working-class roots and reputation as a family club. Today, they remain one of the most successful in Europe.
Rangers were founded in 1872 by William Anderton (a former player for both clubs) who rented a room in his house to serve as the players' changing room. He charged them 50 pence per week (£0.25) to cover the cost of food and drinks. Like many other towns across Scotland, Glasgow was experiencing an influx of workers who were seeking employment during the building of the city's new railway station. These new residents were often not accepted into existing sporting clubs, so Anderton decided to form his own team.
The prominent Catholic teams are Celtic, United, and Everton. The main Protestant teams are Chelsea, Liverpool, and City. Other clubs with significant Catholic populations include Aston Villa, Newcastle United, and Tottenham Hotspur.
Celtic, United, and Everton were all founded as religious institutions by Irish or Scottish priests. They remain the only Catholic teams in the top four divisions of English football.
The first three teams to be called "Football Club" were Rugby Football Club, St. James's Cricket Club, and Surrey County Cricket Club. All three were based in London and each was established by a group of people who shared a common interest in sports that involved running up and down hills a lot.
City, Chelsea, Liverpool, and Manchester City are all known as "Municipal Teams". This means that they are owned by their local government body and not by some big corporation or individual. They play in the Premier League, which is the highest level of competition in England. This league started out as the top flight of British football but now includes many other European leagues as well.
Tottenham Hotspur and Villa are both called "Professional Teams". This means that they pay their players salaries rather than letting them play for free like amateurs.
Like many other football clubs, they were originally named after their location: Sheffield United. The name "Sheffield" comes from an English city about 80 miles south of Manchester.
United played in the first international game in 1872 and have been involved in almost every match since then. They have never won the World Cup, but they have reached the final three times. The most recent time was in 1930 when they lost to Argentina's San Lorenzo de Almagro. Before that they had lost to France's Stade de Marseille in 1928 and Scotland's Hibernian in 1926.
Sheffield United has been a popular team with Catholics for many years because of their proud history of playing good, clean soccer. Today they play in the second division of the English league system. They have never been higher than sixth place in the league table.
Sheffield United has one of the largest fan bases in England with more than 100,000 followers. The club is owned by the family who run the steel business called Steel City. Many famous people have held positions with the club over the years including former England players Gary Neville and David Beckham.
Pause, repeat after me: While the bulk of Celtic fans are Catholic, some of the club's most important personalities (including Jock Stein, Kenny Dalglish, and Danny McGrain) are Protestant. Celtic and Rangers have both started anti-sectarian violence and song initiatives. These efforts are to some extent driven by business considerations - both clubs rely on fan support - but also reflect a desire not to be seen as attacking people because of their religion.
Celtic were founded in 1875 by members of the Christian Celtic Church who wanted to play football. They originally used a mixture of Protestant and Catholic churches as their grounds, before buying land of their own. Although the majority of Celts are Catholic, many Protestant supporters have joined them over the years.
Generally speaking, Catholics believe in the same God as Protestants, but they go to a priest for religious advice and services such as weddings and baptisms. Protestants do not attend priests, but use other ministers for these services. In fact, many Protestant leaders were formerly Catholic priests who were dismissed from their posts for reasons such as marrying outside of the church or having children. Since then, they've created their own version of worship where anyone can participate, which includes singing songs, giving speeches, and playing instruments.
In conclusion, no, not all Celtic fans are Catholic. However, most are involved with the club either through attending games or owning merchandise.